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Letter from the Editor
Greetings from Los Angeles!
Welcome to the Spring 2014 issue of Papyrus. As I write this, IAMFA is beginning its 25th year since its 1990 inauguration in Chicago. Since the very first meeting called by founding member George Preston, IAMFA’s purpose has been to assist its members in improving design, construction, and operation of their cultural facilities. It seems only fitting that IAMFA will complete its 25th year back in Chicago next year, location for its 25th Annual Conference.
IAMFA’s Board of Directors recently had its mid-year Board meeting in Scotland, where we reviewed plans for the 24th IAMFA Annual Conference, set for September this year. Please read Nancy Bechtol’s message to learn more about our excellent meeting. While in Scotland, Patrick Jones from the Art Institute of Chicago told us that he and Bill Caddick, who will host next year’s 25th Annual Conference, recently found a box of papers left by George Preston, containing many of IAMFA’s original documents. I hope all of our members will remain in close touch over the next year as we approach our 25th anniversary. Maybe the discovery of these original documents will shed some light on some of the details that may have been lost about IAMFA’s origins. For now, however, it seems fitting that we begin the celebration. The countdown has started!
Having just visited the venues for the 2014 Scotland Conference, I can’t think of a better place for all of IAMFA’s members to gather and begin celebrating our 25th year. You will read much in this issue about Scotland, as well as the plans for this year’s Conference. Jack Plumb and his excellent team are making arrangements for us, and I can ensure that you won’t be disappointed. There is a two-page centerfold in this issue with pictures from our visit in early April. The venues are stunning! You’ll also find a preliminary schedule of Conference events. As always, please visit www.NewIAMFA.Org for the latest details on the Conference’s educational program.
There is also an article in this issue about the three Glasgow venues that we’ll visit in the fall. The day in Glasgow will culminate in a traditional Burns Supper—you can read more about what a Burns Supper involves in this issue. This looks to be about as close as it gets to traditional life in Scotland . . . I can’t wait! Jack Plumb has also written an article in this issue about Scotland’s historical contributions to society, and I look forward to seeing if it’s all true. He must be exaggerating! We will learn more about the Edinburgh venues in the next issue of Papyrus.
In this issue, you’ll find an article about getting the most from Facility Assessments, contributed by Kendra Gastright and Jason Sawyer of the Smithsonian Institution. You will also read about a book crafted by Judie Cooper and Angela Person-Harm at the Smithsonian titled The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities: A Best Practice Guidebook for Museum Facility Management.This new book is both a guide for those new to the field, and a reference for experienced professionals.You will also read about getting started with benchmarking, along with changes planned to simplify the process for participation in the 2014 Benchmarking exercise that Keith McClanahan coordinates each year.
Lynley McDougall has contributed an update on how Christchurch, New Zealand is recovering from the devastating earthquakes that struck the city just prior to our 2011 Conference in Auckland. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if IAMFA could gather someday in Christchurch to celebrate its full recovery from those tragic events!
Terry Brambles’ article in this issue describes a new energy-efficient system for hydronic snow-melting at the Canadian Museum of History. Quinn Evans Architects, which is an IAMFA Corporate member and sponsor, has also contributed an article about the sustainable features incorporated in their design of a renewed Benjamin Franklin Museum in Philadelphia. We were in the vicinity of the Franklin Museum when we visited the Philadelphia Museum of Art during the 2012 IAMFA Conference.
There is much to read about in this issue of Papyrus. Many thanks to our members and other contributors who provide the educational content for this magazine.
Please stay abreast of developments leading up to the Scotland 2014 Conference. There are some deadlines that you need to be aware of, in order to book your hotel accommodations and to register for this fall’s Conference. Please read on, or visit www.NewIAMFA.org. We don’t want anyone to miss this kickoff to our celebration of IAMFA’s 25th year. Please don’t wait until the last minute to make your plans to attend.
Message from the President
The weather seemed to be just terrible, no matter what part of the world you lived in this past winter. Heavy rains and flooding in southern England, drought and fires in California, snow and more snow in the Midwest, and on the East Coast from Atlanta, Georgia up through Maine and into Canada, all demanded our attention as facilities managers. The winter flew by, but in chaos! I was reminded daily of the value of our occupation in the workplace while dealing with roof leaks, hazardous sidewalks and steps, frozen pipes, and museum closure protocols. I am sure I am not alone!
The sun is out now, temperatures are finally above freezing, and the weather has changed with the onset of spring. Our Board met in Edinburgh, Scotland during the first week of April and, though it rained and was cold every day, we had a grand time. Spring was not evident in the temperature of the air, but it was definitely in full bloom with gorgeous displays of spring bulbs and flowering magnolia trees. We had a fantastic time touring each of the museums and cultural sites we will see in September during our Annual Conference. We also held two days of Board meetings, discussing our plans for sponsorship, membership and our strategic plan.
The fearless Jack Plumb organized our Board meeting as well as a Regional Chapter meeting for the Wednesday—all during the same week! He is also leading the team putting together our Annual Conference in September. We toured the Rosslyn Chapel and the National Museum of Flight on Sunday. It was such a large group that Gavin Moffat often had to assist us in getting around to the various locations. He was a dream to travel with, and we can’t thank him enough for giving up his life that week to take care of our group. The Rosslyn Chapel should be on your must-see list when you come to Edinburgh this fall; it is one of the oldest, most remarkable, and most beautiful stone buildings I have ever seen.
We toured the National Library of Scotland, the National Museum of Scotland, and the National Portrait Gallery on the following day. We have Sean Gillespie and Fiona Stewart from the National Museum of Scotland to thank for their fantastic behind-the-scenes tour. We also want to thank Michael Browne and Jacqueline Ridge from the National Galleries for their time with us; every member is in for such a treat this fall! These museums and cultural institutions are magnificent in every way.
Our Gala dinner will be held at the Royal Botanic Garden. We were conducted around the site by Colin Smith and Sara Griffiths and, even on a cold spring day, the gardens were gorgeous! I can’t wait to see these gardens in September, and we can’t thank the Botanic enough for hosting our organization.
All day Tuesday we spent in Glasgow, touring several of the Glasgow Life museums. There are nine museums in all, and we only got to tour three, but they were amazing! David Thomson spent the entire day with us, and left us simply amazed by the quality of each cultural site we toured. It is incredible to realize that this Glasgow collection of museums is free for all visitors.
Somehow Jack, Gavin and Linda MacMillan managed to host a Chapter meeting on the Wednesday of our visit. The Board got to mingle with about 40 IAMFA members from all over Europe, and enjoyed great presentations by many of our Conference sponsors. The Board was certainly very impressed by this two-day Chapter meeting.
This fall, three Board positions—President, VP Administration, and Editor—are all up for re-election. You can find a list of duties for each position at www.newiamfa.org on the Members Only page. Randy Murphy and Joe May have worked hard to update these job descriptions, and they now accurately reflect the key roles for each position.
You can also find out how the Nominating Committee Policy works on the Members Only page. If you are interested in serving on IAMFA's Board of Directors, please email David Sanders and Alan Dirican. We welcome anyone interested in assisting with the work of this Board. David and Alan will get right back to you with what you need to do to submit your name for consideration.
The Board is always looking for member assistance, so please get in touch with any of us if you have some great ideas and are willing to help. Since we are all volunteers, we can always use help! I look forward to seeing each of you in September, and I can’t thank Jack Plumb and his planning committee enough for all they have already done to organize such a great meeting.
Preview of the 2014 IAMFA Annual Conference in Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland
Neil MacGregor, Director of the British Museum in London, has described the collections of Glasgow’s museums as “one of the greatest civic collections in Europe.”
The city’s museums are run by Glasgow Life, a charitable organisation that runs nine museums, as well as libraries, sports centres, arts venues and theatres on behalf of Glasgow City Council, which also provides the majority of Glasgow Life’s funding.
The museums are collectively known as Glasgow Museums, and include the Riverside Museum, the Burrell Collection, Kelvingrove Museum, the People’s Palace, the Gallery of Modern Art, St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art, Scotland Street Museum, Provand’s Lordship, and Glasgow Museums Resource Centre. Entry is free to all of the museums, and they attract over 3 million visits a year, drawing visitors from local communities, from across Scotland and other parts of the U.K., and from around the world.
The collections were largely built during the period when Glasgow was one of the wealthiest and most populous cities in the United Kingdom. In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, the Glasgow and River Clyde area was a globally important producer of heavy engineering, such as ships and locomotives.
The Burrell Collection is Glasgow’s greatest single civic gift, comprising over 9,000 items given to the city by Sir William Burrell and his wife. The purpose-built Burrell museum building, opened in 1983 and now famous in its own right, houses internationally important collections of tapestries, stained glass, Chinese ceramics and 19th-century European art, among its many treasures. This eclectic collection enjoys a fabulous location in a park and woodland setting, and the museum offers visitors an extensive programme of guided tours, staff-led gallery talks and family activities throughout the year.
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Caption:The Burrell Collection, Glasgow.
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Caption:Interior of the Burrell, Glasgow.
The Riverside Museum, Scotland’s Museum of Transport and Travel, is a purpose-built museum designed by Zaha Hadid Associates. It is located on the River Clyde alongside the Tall Ship Glenlee, and opened in 2011. It substantially re-defines the visitor experience of a transport museum, greatly improves conditions for the collections, and interprets Glasgow’s internationally significant maritime history in-situ. The project is part of the ongoing redevelopment of the Clyde, and the Riverside Museum won the prestigious European Museum Academy Micheletti award for the best Science, Technical and Industrial Museum in Europe 2012, and in May 2013 won the equally prestigious European Museum of the Year Award 2013. This is the first time that a museum has won both major European museum prizes.
The collections at the Riverside Museum are displayed through nine main themes: The Streets (1895–1980); The River Clyde; Transport and Leisure; Made in Scotland; Looks and Fashion; Crossing the World; Cutting Edge: Past, Present and Future; Disasters and Crashes; and Getting There.
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Caption:The Riverside Museum, Glasgow.
Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum is one of the most-visited attractions in Scotland. This Grade A-listed building was designed by architects John Simpson and E.J. Milner Allen of London for the 1901 International Exhibition, and was opened as a museum on October 25, 1902. It is the largest civic museum and art gallery in Britain, and its collections are of international importance. It houses internationally important collections of art, which are particularly strong in works by 17th-century Dutch and 19th-century French artists, as well as nationally important collections of arms and armour, natural history, anthropology and archaeology. The displays include 100 “stories” and approximately 8,000 objects in 22 galleries. Kelvingrove is, to an unusual degree, deeply embedded in the life of the city. It aims to combine the qualities of a friendly local museum with world-class scale and quality.
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Caption:Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow.
These are just a few of the exciting venues awaiting you at this year’s IAMFA Conference. In our next issue, we’ll take a closer look at the sites in Edinburgh, so stay tuned!
Getting the Most from Facility Assessments
By Jason Sawyer and Kendra Gastright
All facility managers develop methods for creating capital and maintenance plans. Common practices include master planning exercises and periodic inspections. The Smithsonian Institution—with more than 700 individual facilities and 12 million-plus maintained gross square feet—uses both methods.
As a quasi-federal agency, the Smithsonian tries to follow all federal mandates and guidelines as much as practical. One of these mandates requires an annual quantified report of our facility condition. Instead of making this into an annual data drill, we made a concerted effort to turn this process into something that works for us. These quantified values are mere snapshots-in-time of the condition of each of our facilities. They include an estimate of the current replacement value of the facility (CRV), the deferred maintenance (DM) value, and an index calculated from these estimates called the Facility Condition Index (FCI).
FCI calculations are performed as follows:
FCI = [1 – (Total DM/Total CRV)] X 100
We are free to determine our own way of estimating both DM and CRV. Some agencies hire a third party to inspect and quantify their maintenance backlog. Prior to 2007, we managed a detailed inspection process, in which we inspected each asset and specified projects that addressed needs and maintenance requirements, and assigned a value to those projects.
Since then, our assessment has evolved into a rapid visual inspection of eight different building systems within each facility. Site visits are conducted every three years using several two-person teams of experienced engineers, contractors, and tradesmen, who quickly review facilities and systems. During the walk-through, staff rate eight building elements based on ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) International’s UNIFORMAT II, Classification for Building Elements. The building elements are then rated.
A rating of 0 means that a system did not exist in a specific facility.
The building systems we concentrate on include:
- Structure (foundations, slabs, floors, pavements)
- Roof/Shell (roofing, gutters, flashing)
- Exterior (walls, windows, doors)
- Interior finishes (floors, walls, ceilings, doors, stairs)
- Electrical (distribution, lighting, other wiring/controls)
- HVAC (HVAC and other mechanical systems)
- Plumbing (water, sewer, fire-protection piping)
- Conveyance (cranes, elevators, hoisting equipment)
Our facilities are varied. We have to assess animal enclosures, labs, office spaces and galleries, all using the same method. We developed a parametric Deferred Maintenance (DM) model, using the DoD's Parametric Cost Estimating System (PACES), to determine a percentage value for all eight systems within each facility category, to make sure scoring meant the same thing, whether it was a cheetah enclosure or an art museum.
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Caption: The Smithsonian Institution Castle.
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Caption: Ruins at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center.
We next calculate a system percentage of repairs needed for the eight systems, based on each of the five condition ratings. These were developed from estimated original construction costs, using RSMeans CostWorks or recent capital projects we’ve just completed, as a baseline. Our process allows us to complete the data call quickly, and at a much lower cost than having a dedicated full-time workforce complete the task, or contracting the work out to a third party.
When field assessments are complete, the ratings are placed into our computerized maintenance management system, where our program converts the assessed condition ratings into three useful metrics: 1) the System Condition Index Rating (SCI); 2) the Facility Condition Index (FCI); and 3) the DM Cost Estimate. All three metrics are capable of providing information in a variety of ways (by systems or by facilities) to facilities managers.
The System Condition Index (SCI) calculation determines the condition of a specific facility system across a group of facilities. It can be calculated at the Facility, Zone and/or Institution level to identify which of the eight facility systems is in greater need of repair, and to assist in prioritizing facility systems projects for multiple facilities. Assessing at the system level allows us to see what parts of any given facility most require renewal.
(Insert FCI systems chart)
Caption: Facility Condition Index—Systems Chart
FCI is a calculation that takes the sum of the eight systems’ deferred maintenance value, divided by the sum of the system CRVs for each facility, and provides a condition percentage. FCI percentages are used at the building, campus and institutional levels to quickly determine one need as compared to others.
(Insert FCI 20 chart)
Caption: Facility Condition Index
Our data is used to build capital and maintenance plans, help determine the priority of our facility requirements when we cannot address them all, and provide an easy-to-understand condition report to our leadership. We continue to improve our process, and it has proven an effective tool in helping justify our budget requests and tell our facility story.
Jason Sawyer is Associate Director, Systems Engineering Group, and Kendra Gastright is Director, Office of Facilities Management and Reliability at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu: Maintaining a Facility Through 13,000 Seismic Events and Numerous Major Repairs
By Lynley McDougall
Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu, with its collection of more than 6,400 works of art, opened on May 10, 2003 and has since attracted over 3.4 million visitors, with some forty per cent visiting from outside Christchurch.
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Caption: Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu in 2003.
Our purpose-built art gallery had been open for over seven years when, on September 4, 2010, North Canterbury New Zealand was rocked by a magnitude 7.1 earthquake. We closed for ten days, thinking at the time that it felt like a lifetime. As the aftershocks continued, the Gallery’s director successfully managed the impact of these on lender perceptions, and we were able to bring the touring exhibition Ron Mueck to Christchurch for a highly successful three months.
None of us, however, anticipated the earthquakes that would follow. Nearly six months later, on February 22, 2011, a devastating magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck central Christchurch. It became the second-deadliest natural disaster ever recorded in New Zealand, with 185 deaths. Within an hour of the earthquake, and for the next seven months, Christchurch Art Gallery, the strongest central building available, became the Emergency Operations Centre and the city’s Civil Defence Headquarters.
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Caption:The Central City Red Zone was a public exclusion zone in central Christchurch, established after the February 2011 earthquakes.
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Caption: The office of the Christchurch Art Gallery Library after the earthquakes.
The central part of the city was closed off, and essential services were shut down due to concerns about fire. We worked long days to ensure that adequate lighting, heating and humidity levels in the Gallery were maintained—not only to protect the city’s precious art collections, but also to cater for more than 400 civil defence staff who suddenly found themselves working out of the Gallery.
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Caption:Emergency services staff working in exhibition spaces.
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Caption:Inspection and removal of precast concrete panels in the foyer.
The Gallery’s backup generators kicked into action after the earthquake, ensuring that the building had power and lighting; but there was no water. The Gallery environment had to be maintained to keep the art safe, so we established a temporary water supply in the basement with a 10,000-litre tank. We built a makeshift pump system, and connected it to the air-conditioning unit and boilers on the roof, five floors above. Our core business changed from presenting works of art to caring for 100% of the collection in storage, as well as caring for emergency services staff working in exhibition spaces.
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Caption: Our ten-thousand-litre tank, and the small pump used as a makeshift water supply to the plant room five floors above.
Throughout 2011, frequent aftershocks caused main and back-up chillers to fail, and in June 2011 two of four compressors failed. Obsolete parts prevented repairs, and insurance discussions added complexity. We investigated options such as a portable chilled-water plant and complete replacement of the existing plant. With continuing aftershocks, another two compressors failed. It was fortuitous that a chilled-water link project between the Gallery and the City Council’s refurbished civic offices close by was under construction during 2011; these works were accelerated to assist us. Chilled water from the trigeneration plant at the civic building was pumped under Worcester Boulevard to the Gallery, allowing us to maintain temperature and humidity.
Christchurch Art Gallery has been closed since February 22, 2011. Detailed engineering investigations were undertaken, and a computer model of the building was developed to test engineering assumptions regarding the building’s strength. Unfortunately, this modelling revealed previously unrecognised damage to the secondary structural elements, as well as the fact that the building had moved out of level. To restore local and international confidence in the building, both in terms of seismic resilience and environmental controls, a repair programme of improvements has been developed. These involve re-levelling, retrofitting base isolation, repairing a wavy glass façade and parapets, and repairing electrical and mechanical services. Our current focus is ensuring that we do the repairs necessary to bring our building up to (and, we hope, exceeding) the new building code.
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Caption:Computerised relevelling pumps in the Christchurch Art Gallery basement car park, monitoring and delivering injection grouting under the building.
The first part of the repair programme started late in 2013 with work to the foundations, bringing the building back to level, reinstating seismic resilience, and mitigating the effects of liquefaction. Computer-controlled deep injection grouting was completed in March 2014. Retrofitting base isolation is the next phase. This involves installing bearings and pads to protect the building and our collections from future seismic shocks. This complex design must incorporate a system for the glass façade—effectively a “curtain wall” comprising 2,184 laminated panes of glass.
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Caption:Relevelling equipment in the Christchurch Art Gallery basement car park.
Inside the Gallery, cracked walls are being restored, and damaged ceilings and lighting tracks replaced. Building services need replacing, as electrical insulation was damaged and cables have been stretched, with their capacity reduced. Shaking has caused some precast panels to fracture, and the fixing points of others to weaken. In order to repair these components, they must be removed from the building, with roof sections across the whole width of the Gallery also removed.
Despite this, the Gallery remains a functioning building requiring continued temperature and humidity management for the collection, including contingency plans and appropriate back-up systems. We have implemented a thorough risk management programme with contractors, and have learned how essential it is to review and update our Business Continuity Plan. Our new plan is far more focused, and sets out required actions for Gallery staff to prepare for, respond to and recover from a major emergency involving Gallery operations.
Although the Gallery remains closed to the public, it is currently occupied by a reduced staff and we have steadfastly retained the collections onsite. The demolition of the neighbouring fourteen-storey apartment block in 2011 meant we needed to relocate the collection to former exhibition spaces on the other side of the building, and increase security monitoring. Now, in 2014, we are taking the opportunity to improve our collection storage spaces, installing twenty-five per cent more racking and developing improved hanging systems.
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Caption:The Art Gallery Apartment building during the demolition process.
Christchurch Art Gallery needs to be robust. We need to guarantee the safety of the works of art entrusted to us by the people of Christchurch, and to assure the owners of priceless and irreplaceable works of art from around the world that we can protect these works while they remain in our care. Displaying important works of art is essential for the cultural health of any city.
It will take at least a further two years to complete the building work. In the meantime, we continue to provide off-site exhibitions and public programmes to keep our visitors engaged, and to lift the spirits of Cantabrians and tourists.
Re-opening is currently scheduled for late 2015, although a date cannot be fixed until further tenders are let. However, we are all very much looking forward to our grand re-opening exhibition LIFT!
Lynley McDougall is Visitor Services and Facility Manager at Christchurch Art Gallery Te Puna o Waiwhetu.
Snow-Melting Modifications to Vehicle Ramps at the Canadian Museum of History
By Terry Brambles
The Canadian Museum of History (formerly the Canadian Museum of Civilization) is Canada’s most-visited museum. Due to its geographical location in a region with heavy winter snows and sometimes-extreme cold, there is an inherent requirement for hydronic snow melting on the exterior portions of the car and bus ramps (Figure 1 shows a typical ramp).
As the name implies, this type of system is designed to melt snow that falls and accumulates on each of the Museum’s four ramps: car entrance, car exit, bus entrance and bus exit. The original control system was unreliable and inefficient; as a result, it required building operators to activate and deactivate the system manually, to set the glycol supply temperature to a high of 50˚C (122˚F) or low of 35˚C (95˚F). There was also no modulation of the four-way valves on each of the ramps, which resulted in the system either not being started soon enough, or running much longer than necessary, while also not operating as efficiently as it could.
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Caption: Figure 1: Parking ramp structure.
Our system is comprised of a main glycol loop, six pumps, one shell-and-tube heat exchanger and four four-way valves. Figure 2 shows the Building Automation System (BAS) graphic for the snow-melting system. Pumps 1 through 4 are each 5 HP, and serve to circulate hot glycol through the network of IPEX piping within each of the ramps. Pump 5 is 15 HP, and is used to circulate the heated glycol through the shell-and-tube heat exchanger and the main glycol loop. Pump 6 is 5 HP, and is used to circulate boiler-supplied hot water through the shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
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Caption: Figure 2: The BAS snow-melting graphic.
The 2013–2014 fiscal year did not allow for full implementation of all of the modifications. Consequently, only part of the work was carried out. The initial phase of the project allowed us to automate activation of the snow-melting system, based on immediate sensing of falling snow, and to deactivate it whenever there was no snow on the sensors.
The system employs four snow-sensor switches (Figures 3 and 4) that are prevented from operating if the outdoor temperature is above 3.3°C (38.0°F). Below this temperature, the sensors will activate the system when the slightest trace of snow or rain lands on the sensor disc. A minimum of two sensors must activate in order for the system to start; this is to prevent false triggering of the system, should someone throw snow on a sensor.
Once the system is activated, all of the pumps start and the glycol begins to heat via the heat exchanger to a high setpoint of 50°C (122°F). This continues for a period of two hours, after which the system begins to modulate to maintain a ramp setpoint, based on an outdoor temperature curve. When the snow has stopped falling and the snow sensors do not detect any snow, there is a minimum period of one hour that each snow sensor’s internal switch will stay closed, plus a further two hours that are programmed into the software of the BAS. Normally, all of the snow sensor switches must open for the system to enter into the shutdown mode, but should one switch stay closed while the others have opened, the system will initiate shutdown one hour after the normal two-hour BAS programmed period.
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Caption: Figure 3: Closeup of one of the snow-sensor switches.
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Caption: Figure 4: Typical installation of one of the snow-sensor switches.
Using an outdoor temperature curve to select the amount of heat that is delivered to the ramps has saved on operational costs, by warming each ramp only enough to melt the falling snow. At this stage in the project, we have given the building’s operators the ability to override the system in all respects—activation, deactivation, temperature, pumps, and valve modulation. However, to ensure that the system is not left ON or OFF, or left at a high temperature, etc., the system is programmed to revert back to automatic after two hours. Manual override of the system will be required until full implementation of the modifications has been completed.
At present, we are relying on the ramp-return temperatures to gauge how much heat there is on the ramp surface. The new sensors utilize infrared temperature sensing, which will provide us with a much more accurate reading of the slab surface temperature.
Phase 2 of the project will see the installation of a much more sophisticated non-invasive snow and ice sensor that also senses the slab temperature. This type of sensor is used on highways and airport runways. The sensors employ optics that, with software, differentiate between ice, black ice, snow, water, and frost. By installing these types of sensors, we will be able to reduce the running time of the system further, as well as the need for operator intervention. The snow-sensor switches are very sensitive, and periodically they activate the system when there is just a gust of wind that blows snow onto the sensor disc. Even after installing the optical sensors, we will still make use of these snow sensor switches as a second line of sensing and redundancy.
With the new optical sensors, the system will start once snow has begun to accumulate on the ramps, then shut down when the ramps are clear. Programming of the system will also allow for the continued operation of only the ramps that still have some snow left on them. Thus, if some of the ramps are clear and others are not, the ones that are clear will shut down, while the others will continue to operate.
There are times when the surfaces of the ramps are wet but not slippery; this would cause the building operator to activate the system as a precaution, because ice might be forming. In most cases, ice was not developing, due to the buildup of salt that was picked up by vehicles and deposited onto the surface of the ramps. The optical sensors will be able to determine if ice is actually forming, or if the surface is just wet.
As part of Phase 2, we are considering installing Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) on each of the pumps to allow for better control over the flow in each ramp, the main glycol loop, and the boiler hot-water supply to the shell-and-tube exchanger.
Once the new system is fully installed and operational, we expect to see considerable savings in both utility costs and manpower, while continuing to ensure the safety of visitors using our car and bus ramps.
Terry Brambles is the Canadian Museum of History’s Mechanical and Electrical Technologist. He was involved with the original construction of the Museum during the 1980s, and is the resident expert on all of the Museum’s mechanical and electrical systems.
The Making of a Book
By Judie Cooper
“From benchmarking to best practices, energy efficiency to artifact preservation, The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities: A Best Practice Guidebook for Museum Facility Management shows the way. Judie Cooper and Angela Person-Harm have crafted a book that is both a guide for those new to the field, as well as a reference for experienced professionals.” —G. Wayne Clough, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution
Written as a guidebook that specifically addresses facility management in cultural institutions, The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities is a text that addresses a wide range of issues. The book is aimed at museum administrators who need to learn more about facility management, as well as facility managers who are stepping into the museum environment for the first time. It conveys the importance of strategically managing facilities to support the institution’s mission.
The book has been welcomed by several undergraduate and graduate facilities management programs as a text to help develop the next generation of cultural facility managers. The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities fills a gap in museum administration literature by providing best practices guidance that can be used to increase efficiency, save money, and improve the visitor experience.
From the evolution of cultural facilities, to current trends, to the strategic role that facility management (FM) plays in supporting a cultural enterprise, this book is full of helpful information. Understanding strategic planning, operations and maintenance, capital improvement planning and sustainability will help stakeholders’ better position themselves for the benefit of the cultural facility.
Risk management, disaster assistance and safety all play unique roles in managing a cultural facility, and are discussed at length. Training facilities staff is also explored, as this has a direct relationship to the effective performance of building systems. And, as more cultural facilities become used as venues for special events, it is increasingly important that cultural facilities understand the potential benefits and drawbacks to hosting these types of events.
The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities explores the challenges, processes and questions facing FMs today. Just as interesting as the book, however, is the story behind its creation.
In 2010, the Office of Facilities Management and Reliability (OFMR) at the Smithsonian Institution welcomed a group of summer interns to work on projects that would help them translate their academic knowledge into a real-world work product. One of the interns that summer was Angela Person-Harm. Angela came to the Smithsonian as she was finishing her Master’s degree in Museum Studies at the University of Oklahoma. She also had an undergraduate degree in Environmental Design, and her project involved documenting best practices in the areas of knowledge transfer and training in a complex facility management organization.
One of Angela’s assignments was to write a magazine article on facility management, using her background in environmental design to summarize what it takes to manage a museum. She noted that, in her four years of undergraduate studies and two years of graduate studies, she’d never had any instruction in facility management and, in fact, had not even heard the term “facility management”.
Angela and I co-authored the article, “A Work of Art: The Keeping of Cultural Facilities,” which was published in the February 2011 issue of Facility Management Journal. We wanted to write about the complexities and unique aspects of facility management in cultural facilities, and we especially wanted the information to be understandable to exhibitions and curatorial staff.
Shortly after the article was published, I was contacted by the American Alliance of Museums (AAM). One of their board members had read the article, and invited us to make a presentation at the AAM conference about what it takes to maintain a cultural facility, and why facility management should matter to curatorial and exhibitions staff.
The extension of this invitation suggested how interested AAM was in the topic, since we didn’t have to go through a formal vetting process. At the conference, curators approached us and said they had never considered the facility management challenges in exhibition spaces—not because they were not interested, but simply because no one had ever addressed these challenges in a comprehensive manner relating directly to their work. They wanted to learn more, and were receptive to understanding the importance of FM on their exhibitions and space.
On the way back from the AAM conference, Angela and I talked about how surprising it was that our audience was so intrigued and interested in what we had to say. We decided that, with such positive feedback from the conference, we would try to put the information—along with additional FM research, knowledge and practical experience—into a more formal format. The conversation during the flight from Houston to Washington went something like this:
Judie: “I think we should write a book.”
Angela: “Okay. Have you ever written a book before?”
Judie: “No. Have you?”
Judie: “The audience seemed really interested in what we were saying. Let’s give it a try. After all, what is the worst thing they could say to us? No?”
Neither of us knew anyone in the publishing world, so we cold-called publishers to get a feel for their interest in such a book. When asked by a publisher specializing in museum publications if there was another book like ours on the market, we said that the role of facility management within the museum community is evolving as the FM profession matures. We added that our recent experience at the AAM conference indicated a market of museum executives wanting to better understand their facilities and how they should be professionally managed. The publisher immediately said it wanted the book—which meant we were now committed to writing it.
Angela returned to the Smithsonian as a Research Fellow the following year, after completing her Master’s degree. While she worked on her Ph.D. in Human Geography, we also worked together on The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities: A Best Practice Guidebook for Museum Facility Management. The book was published by Rowman and Littlefield, with a foreword by G. Wayne Clough, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
The book is geared toward museum administrators, curators, and cultural facilities board members and administrators, and is designed to help them see facility management as more than just keeping a building clean. We want readers to appreciate that cultural facility management is about viewing the facility strategically, as an asset to be managed well.
Cultural facilities include not only museums, but also other spaces such as zoos, performing arts spaces, libraries, archives and theaters. This book informs staff of these facilities, one chapter at a time, about the inner workings of facility management, and how they can benefit their facilities by understanding them, planning and caring for them, operating and maintaining them, and managing them as the irreplaceable assets that they are.
The book seeks to bridge the gap between operating/maintaining and planning/designing, and to help create an environment in which these disciplines can work together to create better environments for collections, staff, and visitors. It also seeks to educate museum staff about the intricacies of managing a facility, so that they can partner with the facility management team for the benefit of the institution.
The Care and Keeping of Cultural Facilities is available online at retailers such as Amazon, and in bookstores. It can also be ordered directly through the publishers Rowman & Littlefield (Rowman.com), and you can receive a 30% discount using promotion code 4M14CKCF until December 31, 2014.
Judie Cooper, CFM, is a facility management analyst with the Office of Facilities Management and Reliability of the Smithsonian Institution, and is responsible for strategic initiatives, organizational development, benchmarking, research, staff professional development and implementation of best practices. She is a frequent speaker on facility management issues as well as the importance of their strategic alignment with the enterprise itself.
Getting Started with Benchmarking
By Keith McClanahan
Many IAMFA members who have not benchmarked have difficulty getting started in the benchmarking process. We have listened to comments regarding how formidable and time-consuming the process can be, and have really streamlined it so that it is much easier to obtain a high “value add” within a minimal amount of time. Here is a suggested approach to help you to get started with the IAMFA benchmarking program, which is designed to take the pain and drudgery out of the process. We have used actual “screenshot” examples from the IAMFA/Facility Issues website to illustrate how easy the it is. This approach will help you obtain key output reports in a minimal amount of time.
The first thing to remember is that, with only a few benchmarking values, you can usually see where you stand on more than 95% of your operating costs. If you’re not currently benchmarking, getting 95% of the portfolio costs into a benchmarking program would be a good first step. The chart below shows the 2013 median results from IAMFA benchmarking participants. Note that, by benchmarking just their Utilities, Maintenance, Custodial, and Security costs, participants are benchmarking 98% of their controllable operating costs.
Potential benchmarking participants often ask me how much time it will take to complete the survey. The answer varies, since it depends on how much information they will be providing. The IAMFA benchmarking tool has been completely redesigned during the past year. It is much more flexible, and can accommodate data inputs based on the time you have available. If you have access to the data noted below, it should take between 30 and 60 minutes to complete these inputs.
So, what do you really need to get started with benchmarking and get some useful outputs? At Facility Issues, we call these inputs “Tier I” data fields. By inputting these Tier I data fields, you will be able to see how your performance compares with others on most of the KPI charts, in the shortest possible time.
Let's begin with the demographic inputs. There are only four questions here.
Once you have these in the system, the information will be carried over from year to year. You only need to go back and change the information that needs to be updated. Our website tester at Facility Issues reports that it took her two minutes to complete this form.
You'll note in all the screenshots from the website that there is a blue next to some questions. By hovering over the you can obtain additional information about what costs should be included, and what the units should be. This is a feature that participants have told us they really like. All the information and definitions are on the same screen, and there is no “looking around” for additional clarification.
Next, let's look at space information. This form appears really formidable, but if you're a first-time participant, you don't need to complete the entire form. All you really need to complete is question B1. It is important to get this area right, since we use that value as the denominator for all calculations, to normalize the cost per square foot or cost per square meter.
If you have more information, that's great. It's really helpful to show your space breakdown by the various types; but that can come later. Most organizations have this data, but organizing it in a way that can be input in the IAMFA benchmarking tool takes some time.
The IAMFA benchmarking survey is collecting information on set points and relative humidity in all areas in which collections are displayed or stored. Ongoing studies are in progress, and this benchmarking data is being used with curators to show that these temperature ranges can be relaxed. In most locations, this can have a significant impact on utility expenses.
The Janitorial section is next. This is one of the easiest sections in which to ad data. All you really need to provide is the total janitorial costs and the area cleaned.
If you're uncertain about how much work is performed by internal staff, and how much by contractors, just make an estimate so that the total costs of janitorial services are included in question J1. If you're not sure about the area cleaned, look at the gross square area submitted in the demographic section, and make an appropriate percentage reduction. For most institutions, the area cleaned works out to about 90% of the gross area.
Now let's look at the maintenance section. Again, this is a long section and most first-time participants are not willing to complete all the items; then again, you don't have to.
There are 12 questions here, but the critical question is M1. Again, if you're uncertain about how much of the work is performed by your internal staff, and how much by your contract staff, then you can make an estimate. Just be sure the total maintenance cost is reflected in the two numbers.
Security represents a higher budget percentage for cultural institutions than most other types of facilities. Good comparisons are important, so that you can show your executive leadership that your costs are in line with others. There are five questions in the security section, but S1 is the critical one. Other values, such as the number of security employees, how access is controlled, and the number of training hours can all be provided later.
The next section we will cover is Utilities. There are 12 questions here, but some are much more important than others. In discussions with our Steering Committee, we have concluded that there is probably more cost pressure on this issue than any other component in the benchmarking survey. In many areas of the world, it was a difficult and cold winter; gas prices are up significantly, electricity costs are increasing, and it sometimes seems that all the initiatives to save energy have been taken away by cost increases.
The critical questions here are:
- U1—energy costs, and
- U7—energy consumption from utilities
Most of your costs are probably from electricity and natural gas. If you can provide these, then you will have entered the majority of your energy costs into the benchmarking system. Another very useful comparison is the energy intensity, which is obtained from the U7 input. If both of these questions are answered, then the key performance indicators for energy costs and utilization will have been provided.
After entering this basic information, you will be able to see how you compare on the major KPI charts for:
That is a significant achievement for between 30 and 60 minutes of time.
To obtain the maximum benefit from the IAMFA benchmarking application, you should return and input additional data. However, after you’ve entered your Tier I data, take a look at your output charts and discuss your organization’s performance with others. The benefits of benchmarking will become highly visible, and a critical source of information for your organization.
Keith McClanahan is the principal at Facility Issues Inc., which administers IAMFA’s annual benchmarking exercise.
A Real Burns Supper at IAMFA Annual Conference in Scotland
By Jack Plumb
Although a Burns Supper is usually held on January 25—the birthday of Robert Burns, Scotland’s greatest poet—we are pleased to confirm that IAMFA Conference participants will be going to a real Burns Supper on the Monday evening of the Conference. But who was Robert Burns, and why is his birthday celebrated around the world by Scots and non-Scots alike?
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Caption: Robert Burns
Robert Burns, who was born on January 25, 1759, is more popularly known as “Rabbie” Burns. He is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland, and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best-known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is also in English and a light Scots dialect, making it accessible to an audience outside Scotland. He is regarded as a pioneer of the Romantic movement and, after his death, became a cultural icon in Scotland as well as among Scottish expatriates around the world. Celebration of his life and work became almost a charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, and his influence on Scottish literature has long been strong.
In addition to producing original compositions, Burns also collected folk songs from across Scotland, often revising or adapting them. His poem (and song) Auld Lang Syne is often sung at Hogmanay (the last day of the year), and Scots Wha Hae served for a long time as one of Scotland’s unofficial national anthems. Other poems and songs by Burns that remain well known around the world today include A Red, Red Rose, A Man's a Man for A' That, To a Louse, To a Mouse, The Battle of Sherramuir, Tam o' Shanter and Ae Fond Kiss.
Burns was the son of a farmer, and farming was destined to be his main occupation until, later in life, he became an excise man in Dumfries. His real love, however, was his poetry, which would eventually bring him fame.
Following the death of his father, and struggling to support his family through farming, Burns decided to take a job in Jamaica. Unfortunately, he lacked the funds to pay for his passage to the West Indies, so a friend suggested that he publish his poems. On July 31, 1786, John Wilson published works by Robert Burns in book simply titled, Poems, today known as the Kilmarnock Volume. It sold for three shillings, and contained much of his best writing. The success of the work was immediate, and soon Burns was known across the country.
Such was the support and encouragement for this first edition that Burns was advised to travel to Edinburgh, where he would find more support for the publication of a second edition. On November 27, 1786, Burns borrowed a pony and set out for Edinburgh. The first Edinburgh edition of Poems was published on April 17, 1787. For this edition, Alexander Nasmyth was commissioned to paint the oval bust-length portrait now in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, which was turned into an engraving to provide a frontispiece for the book.
In Edinburgh in early 1787, Burns met James Johnson, a struggling music engraver and music seller with a love of old Scots songs, and a determination to preserve them. Burns shared this interest, and became an enthusiastic contributor to The Scots Musical Museum. The first volume was published in 1787, and included three songs by Burns. He contributed 40 songs to Volume two, and he was ultimately responsible for about a third of the 600 songs in the whole collection, in addition to making a considerable editorial contribution. The final volume was published in 1803.
Upon his return to Ayrshire on February 18, 1788, he resumed his relationship with Jean Armour. On March 18, he took a lease on the farm of Ellisland near Dumfries, settling there on June 11. He also trained as an excise man, in case farming continued to prove unsuccessful. He was appointed to duties in Customs and Excise in 1789, and eventually gave up the farm in 1791. In November 1790, he wrote “Tam O' Shanter”, and it was at this time that, asked to write lyrics for The Melodies of Scotland, he responded by contributing over 100 songs. Arguably his claim to immortality rests chiefly upon these volumes, which placed him in the front rank of lyric poets.
On the morning of July 21, 1796, Burns died in Dumfries, at the age of 37. The funeral took place on July 25: the same day that his son Maxwell was born. Burns was at first buried in the far corner of St. Michael's Churchyard in Dumfries, but his body was moved to its final location in the same cemetery, the Burns Mausoleum, in September 1815. The body of his widow Jean Armour was buried with his in 1834. Through his 12 children, Burns had over 600 living descendants as of 2012.
So that’s the man; what about the supper? Yes, you will enjoy a traditional Burns Supper, which includes haggis. Haggis is traditionally served with mashed potatoes (tatties) and mashed turnips (neeps). Whilst you have most probably all heard of the stories of what goes into haggis, sorry to disappoint you, but modern haggis is nothing like that. Modern haggis is made from a combination of beef, lamb, oatmeal, seasoning and spices, all wrapped in a natural casing—just like salami.
You can also opt for vegetarian haggis, which is made in the same way, but with kidney beans, lentils, root vegetables and cereals all packed into the same natural casing. Haggis does not contain wheat, but oatmeal may have come into contact with wheat in the field, or at harvesting, and haggis cannot be classified as gluten-free. However, some people on a gluten-free diet can happily eat haggis.
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Caption: Haggis platter at a Burns Supper.
We also intend to offer a traditional dessert course with cranachan, (a mixture of whipped cream, whisky, honey and fresh raspberries, topped with roasted oatmeal), followed by oatcakes and cheese, all washed down with the “water of life” (uisge beatha): Scottish whisky. When the meal reaches the coffee stage, various speeches and toasts are given.
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Caption: Desert cranachan with the “water of life”—Scottish whisky.
Finally, the host will call upon one of the guests to give the vote of thanks, after which everyone is asked to stand, join hands, and sing Auld Lang Syne, bringing the evening to an end.
Jack Plumb is the Head of Estates at the National Library of Scotland, and the Scotland 2104 Conference Chair.
The Benjamin Franklin Museum: Renewing a Philadelphia Landmark
By Thomas C. Jester
As a scientist and inventor—with a keen interest in electricity—Benjamin Franklin would likely have appreciated modern innovations in energy-efficiency and the conservation of natural resources. After a comprehensive two-year renovation, the Philadelphia museum that honors Franklin now reflects the latest principles in sustainability, while also providing an enhanced visitor experience and introduction to the statesman’s life and achievements.
The Benjamin Franklin Museum originally opened in 1976 to commemorate the U.S. Bicentennial. Set in Independence National Historical Park, the Museum and surrounding Franklin Court were designed by Robert Venturi in collaboration with Denise Scott Brown, John Rauch, and preservation architect John Milner. The court design features the acclaimed “ghost” structures: white metal frames outlining the volumes of Franklin’s house and the print shop run by his grandson, set upon the underground foundations of the house.
The Museum itself was largely built underground, providing an insulated envelope for the building that did not require alteration during the recent modernization. According to a recent case study published by the National Park Service (NPS), “Sustainability Meets Adaptability at Independence National Historical Park,” the underground structure is “sealed much tighter than aboveground buildings,” and, together with its easily accessible downtown location, the Museum, as an existing building, offered “inherent sustainability.”
An Artful, Practical Update
Although the Museum did not require significant structural alterations, NPS recognized that it was much in need of updating in terms of building systems, access, circulation, daylighting, and exhibits. The design team for the renovation was led by Quinn Evans Architects, with Casson Mann providing exhibit design, and Affiliated Engineers designing the building-system improvements. Objectives included the creation of a more inviting museum entryway; enhancing the sense of connection between the underground exhibition space and the court above; transforming the exhibits to offer a more interactive, visitor-directed experience (the original approach called for highly sequenced circulation that allowed large crowds to move through quickly); expanded orientation areas and a new gift shop; and mechanical, electrical, and life safety system upgrades.
To create a clear point of entry and expanded space for visitors as they arrive, Quinn Evans Architects enclosed an area that was previously covered by a canvas canopy, and created a distinctive glass entry pavilion. The new curtainwall interprets the brick façade’s Flemish bond pattern with a terracotta-colored ceramic frit pattern applied to the glass, recalling the surface texture of hand-molded brick. According to the NPS case study, “the ceramic brick pattern featured in the curtainwall is not only attractive, but it also reduces the amount of light and heat energy entering the building.” The customized glass, provided by Saint-Gobain, is double-glazed, low-emissivity (“low-e”), and argon-filled, making it “highly efficient in sealing the building.”
The new portal echoes the design of the original 1976 canvas awning—a reference to the Philadelphia tradition of open-air market shelters—with a copper-clad canopy. The canopy’s linear composition is relieved by a large, new window that brightens the interior and re-introduces the ghost house to visitors as they return to the surface after experiencing the exhibits.
Oriented due east, the glass façade is constructed as a “shadow box” with glazing placed at both the outer and inner planes of the curtainwall frame. The inner glass is frosted with a ceramic frit mezzotint. “In the afternoon, when the façade is in shadow, the glazing creates a gauzy, translucent scrim,” says Carl Elefante, FAIA, principal-in-charge for Quinn Evans Architects. “In direct sun, it glows, animated with shadows cast by the ghost house. The shadows become a playful element within the space.”
NPS notes the additional sustainable benefits: “The new structure also allows natural daylighting to enter the building, and even reach the underground museum section, which reduces the need for electric lighting during the day. . . To further increase energy savings, light-emitting diode (LED) lamps were used in lighting throughout the building.”
Linking Past and Present
In addition to the entry pavilion, interior improvements include a new staircase leading from the court level to the underground galleries. Cast-in-place concrete elements express, for the first time, the predominately concrete underground structure. New exhibits enable visitors to flow freely throughout the Museum, exploring representations of rooms from Franklin’s house depicting themes that present the patriot’s character, personality, interests, intellect, and accomplishments. Each room contains historical objects, documents, and a variety of audiovisual and interactive displays.
Improvements for sustainability also include the installation of water-conserving fixtures, use of recycled and low-VOC materials, and the connection of the Museum to the park’s central chilled-water plant, which has significantly reduced the energy used for cooling the building.
A dedicated exit staircase has also been added, with a new Museum shop adjacent to the exit staircase at the court level. As visitors make their last turn on the staircase, they see the dramatic image of the ghost house framed through the view window, reorienting them to Franklin Court.
Elefante notes that the steel ghost structures played a pivotal role in developing the concepts for the renovation design. “Venturi’s ghost structures are still as stunning and surprising today as they were in 1976,” says Elefante. “They reflect a double stroke of genius: Franklin’s home is defined as a memorial, yet there is an intellectual honesty about what isn’t there and what we don’t know about this important place. The new glass pavilion, with the fritted glass and large view window framing the ghost house, responds to these structures.”
The modernization—both ambitious in scope, yet respectful of the celebrated original design—has been well received by critics and the public. The renovation meets the Guiding Principles for Federal Leadership in High Performance and Sustainable Buildings. The full case study appears in the NPS 2013 Annual Environmental Progress Report.
Tom Jester, AIA, FAPT, LEED AP, served as Quinn Evans Architects’ project manager on the renovation of the Benjamin Franklin Museum.
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Caption: The Benjamin Franklin Museum’s new entry pavilion features an energy-efficient glass curtainwall with a unique pattern recalling hand-molded brick. Photo: Joseph M. Kitchen Photography
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Caption: A new view window, overlooking the famed “ghost” structures, provides more natural daylight into the underground museum, reducing the need for electric lighting. LED lights were installed during the renovation. Photo: Joseph M. Kitchen Photography
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Caption: The design of the new glazed curtainwall animates the interior with a dramatic shadow effect. Photo: Joseph M. Kitchen Photography
IAMFA Scotland 2014:
A Tongue-in-Cheek View of History
By Jack Plumb
Hopefully you will have already booked your visit to Scotland in September for the 24th Annual IAMFA Conference. If not, I cannot stress enough how important it is for you to log onto the IAMFA website (http://newiamfa.org/) and use the link to book your hotel room; they are going fast.
In the spirit of all things Scottish, you will have read my previous article about the theme of the Conference, which is the fourth dimension—time—and which tells the story of how Scotland continuously reinvents itself as a modern, culturally advanced nation. However, the Conference will also celebrate Scotland’s past, so here are some of the significant achievements by Scots in the past which we take for granted in our everyday lives. So, IAMFA Scotland 2014 delegates and guests, fasten your seat belts and enjoy the ride.
Welcome to Scotland, and I hope you have enjoyed the first night in your hotel, which of course includes breakfast. Your breakfast will feature toast, and marmalade invented by Mrs Keiller of Dundee. To make sure you’re not late for the first coach ride to Glasgow, check the electric clock, invented by Alexander Bain of Caithness, then make sure you have your raincoat to hand, patented by Charles MacIntosh from Glasgow.
The coach will travel on the motorway surfaced with tarmac invented by John MacAdam of Ayr, and of course the coach will be fitted with pneumatic tyres invented by Robert Thompson of Stonehaven in 1847 and improved and patented by John Dunlop of Dreghorn in 1888. Before the coach ride, you might well have travelled on the train powered by a steam engine invented by James Watt of Greenock.
At our Conference venue, you may well visit the shop to purchase an adhesive stamp—invented by John Chalmers of Dundee—to put on your postcard home. Realising you need cash, you may visit an automated teller machine, invented by John Shepard-Barron of Inverness in 1967. You might wish to call home using the telephone invented by Alexander Graham Bell, born in Edinburgh. During that call, you learn that your son is reading Kidnapped, written by Robert Louis Stevenson of Edinburgh; your son asks that you visit the Hawes Inn in South Queensferry, still operating as a licenced premises. Your daughter is playing on her bicycle, invented by Kirkpatrick MacMillan of Thornhill, outside in the garden. Missing the children, you think back to when you were expecting your first child, and to that first ultrasound image—a technique first developed by Ian Donald in Glasgow.
Later, you enjoy a beef sandwich—Aberdeen Angus beef, of course, which is raised in Aberdeenshire, and is widely considered the best beef in the world. Now, starting to get fed up of all things Scottish, you turn to the Bible, only to find that its first translation into English was commissioned by King James VI—yes, you guessed correctly—a Scot. Approaching the end of your patience, you contemplate the end with your breech-loading rifle, invented by Captain Patrick Ferguson of Pitfours. Should you miss and injure yourself, you might be treated with penicillin, discovered by Sir Alexander Fleming of Darvel, or given chloroform, an anaesthetic first used by Sir James Young Simpson of Bathgate.
Finally, making it back to your hotel room, you switch on the television, invented by John Logie Baird of Helensburgh, which uses the electromagnetic theory that stemmed from development work carried out by John Clerk Maxwell of Edinburgh. With nowhere else to go to escape these Scots, there is only one last resort: yes, the pub. Pull out your Bank of England—yes, founded by William Paterson of Dumfries—ten-pound note and buy yourself—and me!—the best whisky in the world: yes, Scottish Whisky.
I hope you all have a great time.
Jack Plumb is the Head of Estates at the National Library of Scotland, and the Scotland 2104 Conference Chair.
Regional Chapter Updates
New England Chapter Update
To welcome Alan Dirican to his new job with Harvard University’s Dumbarton Oaks facility in Washington, D.C., Dave Geldart, John Lannon and Jim Moisson met him for a lunch meeting while he was in training in Cambridge, Massachusetts on February 12. As usual, good information, facilities wisdom, and a tasty lunch were shared by all, while discussing the upcoming 2016 IAMFA Conference in Boston.
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Caption: Dumbarton Oaks in Washington, D.C.
Philadelphia Regional Chapter Update
A New Look for Winterthur—Inside and Out!
Important renovation projects are now underway to further enhance the visitor experience at Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library.
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Caption: Winterthur Museum, Garden & Library. Photo: Jeannette Lindvig
Inside, Winterthur has completed the first phase of a year-long renovation to the Museum. Tinted glass or Plexiglas® was installed in the windows to filter damaging UV and visible light. The tinted layer reduces the level of sunlight that enters the room, preventing damage that can cause collection pieces to fade, yellow, and become brittle.
The former gray glass was replaced with a new bronze-colored glass that brings a warm, welcome glow to the house, restoring Winterthur to founder Henry Francis du Pont’s vision of maintaining the atmosphere of a gentleman’s private residence. Another advantage to the Plexiglas® is that the historical window frames are now visible from the exterior of the building. The new windows create a more inviting outer appearance; prior to this, the windows looked like black holes.
Beginning in March, workers began encasing the house in ground-to-roofline scaffolding. Over the next year the museum’s 410 windows, 15 doors, and approximately 800 shutters will be replaced, restoring the iconic exterior of du Pont’s former home to the architect’s original 1930s vision.
The exterior renovation project is much more extensive than Phase 1, and is scheduled to continue until December 2014. Many parts of the exterior windows will be replaced, including deteriorating shutters. The wooden shutters will be changed to a composite material composed of fiberglass. Every effort has been made to preserve the wooden window sashes and frames, a compromise to maintain the historical integrity of the house—though Winterthur’s mission is not that of a historical house, but rather the preservation of the historical architecture that contains the home’s collection.
Only three of the existing shutters are original to the home; the conservation department will preserve these shutters, as they contain important historical information on paint color. The failing window frames will be repaired and restored from a pinkish paint to their original color, now known as Hazy Skies.
Other parts of the ongoing renovation include repairs to gutters, downspouts, and some chimneys. In addition, the maintenance and sealing of adjacent woodwork will end the intrusion of cold drafts, humid air, and damaging insects.
In the interest of making the scaffolding project as pleasing to the eye as possible to Winterthur’s many visitors this year, the building will be wrapped in a scrim, which will feature an image from the Winterthur Archives.
The $4.5 million renovation project, implemented by the local company, EDis, will restore Winterthur closer to the 1930s vision of the home.
A corresponding project is set to begin in July. The Cottage’s conservatory, home to the Museum Store’s garden and plant retail space, will be rebuilt to include new glass and iron mullions. Renovations to The Cottage, by SC&A Construction, are necessary for the restoration and structure of the conservatory.
Come back and see Winterthur in 2015 to view H. F. du Pont’s former home transformed, both inside-and-out!
For renovation updates and images, please check http://renovation.winterthur.org
Northern California and Nevada Regional Chapter
By Jennifer Fragomeni
On April 18, the Northern California Chapter met at the Western Railway Museum in Solano County, California. The Western Railway Museum is dedicated to preserving and interpreting the electric railways of the western United States in general, and northern California in particular. The Museum includes 95 cars, two restoration shops, three car sheds, and 22 miles of historical track. Secretary of the Board, John Krauskopf, made special arrangements for the Northern California Chapter to be able to visit on a day when the Museum is normally closed, and acted as our host for the afternoon. Roger Bergmans (Operations Superintendent) and Christina March (Public Programs Manager) also accompanied the group.
The meeting kicked off with a ride over the preserved main line of the Sacramento Northern Railroad in the parlor car of “The Scenic Limited.” During the ride, the group discussed the benefits of benchmarking and attending the IAMFA Annual Conferences. Jennifer Fragomeni shared Facility Issues’ 2013 presentation, “Benchmarking Effectively”.
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Caption: The parlor car of The Scenic Limited, with authentic 1915 interior. Left to right: Tamara Hayes, SF Museum at the Mint; Chuck Mignacco, Exploratorium; Christina March, Western Railway Museum; John Krauskopf, Western Railway Museum; Joe Brennan, SFMOMA (retired); and Chris Bernard, Lindsay Wildlife Museum.
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Caption: The luxury train car that was Maude’s home in the film Harold and Maude.
After the ride, the group visited the 37,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art “Car House Three” (the Loring C. Jensen Memorial Car House). To protect the historical artifacts housed inside, this $2.5M facility is built like a wine cave. The all-steel building is heavily insulated throughout, with four inches of rockwool in the walls, and heavy fiberglass below the roof. These features keep annual temperature variations between 55˚F and 70˚F without any heating or cooling machinery, as well as providing fireproofing.
A 10 mm vapor barrier is buried under the floor to prevent moisture from wicking up into the building from the clay substrate. Three low-velocity fans, each 20 feet in diameter, circulate air and prevent condensation from forming. The building has no windows. Low-UV lamps operate only when the building is occupied, to keep the restoration work fresh.
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Caption: Exterior of "Car House Three." Left to right: John Krauskopf, Western Railway Museum; Christina March, Western Railway Museum; Jennifer Fragomeni, Exploratorium; Joe Brennan, SFMOMA (retired); Chris Bernard, Lindsay Wildlife Museum; and Charlie Booth, ABM Facility Services.
More than one-quarter of the capital budget was dedicated to the extensive fire-protection system. The site of the Western Railway Museum is nine miles from city water, so it was necessary to sink a new well, build a 220,000-gallon water storage tank, install a diesel pump, bury high-pressure water mains and fire hydrants, and increase the strength of the clear-span trusses of the car house to support the wet-charge pipes. The fire department also required the Western Railway Museum to install access roads to “Car House Three” so that trucks could access the building during the rainy season, when the local soil will not support a vehicle.
After the fascinating tour of the car house, the group got a quick visit to the restoration shops, to see where the magic is carried out on the rail cars, top to bottom. The Western Railway Museum manages to do amazingly meticulous restoration work with its dedicated all-volunteer crew. The size of some of the machinery needed to do the restoration work was truly impressive.
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Caption: Jacks hold up a train car undergoing restoration.
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Caption: The Monarch engine lathe used to resurface train wheels.
After many thanks for the informative afternoon, it was time to go home. The Northern California Chapter had an afternoon that none of us will soon forget.
Jennifer Fragomeni is Director of Facilities at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California USA, and is the Chair of the Northern California/Nevada Chapter of IAMFA.
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Joe Brennan recently led a cleft palate and repair mission for the Alliance for Smiles in remote Weining, China—1,000 miles west of Canton, and 500 miles north of Hanoi. Below is one of the daily briefings from the mission.
Los Angeles Regional Chapter Update
What an evening Arts Earth Partnership, LACMA and the City of Los Angeles had on March 13! It wasn't a night for deep conversation about the state of environment, but a moment to pause, celebrate and regroup in order to move forward and tackle the big issues facing our planet today, through the arts.
It's very rare to get a cross-section of society into one room. Artists, politicians, city representatives, environmentalists, sustainability leaders, activists, realtors, designers—they were all there. If you were there, it was because you understand how important the arts sector is, and the major impact this sector can have.
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Caption: The Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Photo: © 2008 Museum Associates/LACMA
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Caption: Honorees and Presenters (left to right): Adam Meltzer, Arts:Earth Partnership; Karen Coca for Enrique Zaldivar; Mike Bonin, Councilman for the 11th District; Joel Shapiro, Electric Lodge; David Biggs, LA DWP; Randy Murphy, LACMA; Justin Yoffe, Arts:Earth Partnership.
Even if you are not an artist yourself, you likely love the arts. There is a reason for that. The next time you are in a gallery or museum; at a play, concert, or dance performance; or in a studio, think about the impact that art is having on the world, and everything that went into the art you’re contemplating, from its inception to its final display. The message is important, and the medium is as well. Less waste=more art!
AEP and LACMA expresses their thanks for everyone who came out and supported their efforts with the Green Arts Program in Los Angeles, and a special thank you to all those that participated in the ceremony, volunteered and sponsored.
U.K. Regional Chapter
By Jack Plumb
April 2014—so it must be time for the IAMFA Board to visit Scotland and check out progress on this year’s Annual Conference. The Board arrived in Edinburgh on Friday and Saturday at the end of March. I collected the group from one of your Conference hotels on the Sunday to visit some of the venues arranged for the guest tour.
Our first stop was the National Museum of Flight for a look at the Concorde, which is on display there. We then travelled to Rosslyn Chapel with an entertaining journey through the East Lothian countryside—especially as the driver got lost along the way. The weather was pretty awful, with very poor visibility, due to a heavy mist that was to plague the group for the whole week. Hopefully when Conference participants travel this route in the fall, their driver will not get lost—and the weather will be perfect, with clear visibility for miles.
On Monday, we visited all the host sites in Edinburgh, which included the National Library of Scotland, the National Galleries, the National Portrait Gallery and the National Museum—and that was all before lunch! We were met at the venues by the teams responsible for those days, and heard about the various presentations and tours that have been lined up for delegates and their guests.
On Tuesday, it was off to Glasgow to visit the Burrell Museum, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, and the Riverside Museum. At the Riverside Museum, we boarded the Tall Ship Glenlee to view the site for the Monday evening drinks reception. It was then back into the minivan and off to New Lanark, where we met up with former IAMFA member—and current Deputy Chairman of the Board of Trustees at New Lanark—Bill Jackson. Then back to Edinburgh to meet up with the U.K. membership—including Dan McKenzie, M.D. of Steensen Varming, our very first corporate sponsor—all of whom had travelled up to Edinburgh for the joint U.K. IAMFA and Conservation meeting, which was to be held at the National Library of Scotland the next day.
On Wednesday, we welcomed over 40 U.K. IAMFA members and Conservation colleagues to the bi-annual U.K. IAMFA meeting.
The first presentation, titled “The key to a successful FM Partnership,” was delivered by Brian Jamieson of ECG Facilities, who gave a challenging presentation on how government procurement procedures, whilst requiring significant amounts of paperwork, do not give FM suppliers a real opportunity to demonstrate what they can do. He suggested that a couple of additional steps should be added to the current procurement procedure: first, a visit to the potential supplier’s office to see where the services are generated; and second, a visit to an existing client to see firsthand how those services were delivered—perhaps something for us FM purchasers to take on board.
Second up was Chris Donohue of Cofely GDF Suez, whose presentation was titled “i on the future”. The title of his presentation couldn’t have been more apt because, whilst it seemed like a presentation predicting the future, it was actually about the present, and what current technology, using the iPhone, could deliver today. We were introduced to Google Glass and iBeacon—both readily available today, with software that is already loaded onto all iPhones.
Chris explained that the iBeacon—a small battery-powered device—can be strategically placed in various locations, including buildings, and that it can “talk” to Google Glass software on an iPhone to identify the iPhone’s location. Using this location information, the iPhone can then carry out any number of tasks: for instance, identify what the iPhone is looking at in order to provide detailed information on the picture/object, including what it is, and even whether or not you’d like to buy a copy.
The software could also be used by a conservator to receive information about a space that is now out of its designed environmental envelope, or an FM person being directed to a faulty piece of equipment. In this case, the iPhone could transmit images back to a central location for technical support. To me, this exciting technology can be used in any number of ways, limited only by our own imaginations!
After a short break for coffee, George Adams of SPIE Matthew Hall, SPIE UK Engineering Director, and current President of Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers, gave a presentation on “A City’s Journey on the Carbon Express.” At the heart of George’s presentation was a call to restrict global climate change to 2ºC—at least, that should be our goal, however unlikely we are to reach it. George explained that, at current consumption rates, we are on target to use our entire carbon budget within the next 25 years, unless significant action is taken now.
George went on to say that there are unfortunately two things working against us: rapid industrialisation in the developing world, and a steady increase in the world’s population. George then explained the issue of heat intensity within inner cities, making the point that up to 70% of the world’s population lives in cities, and research has shown that, as far back as 1830, the average overnight temperature in cities has been as much as 5–6˚C warmer than surrounding rural areas, and that during the summer of 2003 the difference rose to 10ºC in London.
George then asked what can be done to help this situation. He chooses to see this as a major opportunity for the construction industry, including building operators like ourselves. Governments also have an important role to play, especially as they have had 20 years of conferences with very little to show for them, (Montreal Protocol excepted). On the down side, coal-fired energy production is still climbing—rising 50% between 2008 and 2010—and there is still no legal protection for the environment. George ended his presentation with a proposal from Polly Higgins of Earth is Our Business for the introduction of a fifth international law, which would effectively make it an offence to damage the environment.
The final presentation was delivered by Mike Vinson of Camfil. Mike’s presentation was about molecular filtration, specifically focused on removing ozone pollution from national archives. Mike explained that ozone is a powerful oxidant and, whilst it performs a very useful role in the upper atmosphere by reflecting the worst of the sun’s rays, closer to the ground it does bring about oxidation.
Oxidation causes yellowing and the formation of acids in organic materials. This can cause dyes and pigments to fade, rubber to crack, textiles to become brittle, and paint binders to destabilize. Mike added that the control of ozone was now just as important as the control of previously known pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.
At the Camfil R&D facility in Sweden, they have developed the first ozone-removal efficiency-rating system; this is believed to be a first in the filtration industry. Mike concluded by encouraging us as building operators to start measuring the levels of ozone within our collection spaces, to ensure that we are using the correct molecular filtration methods to keep ozone, as well other known pollutants, from damaging our collections.
The presentation session for the morning ended with the all the presenters as well as Dan Mackenzie being invited up onto the stage to take questions from the audience.
Following lunch, it was the turn of the IAMFA Board to take the stage and answer questions from the audience. A lively debate followed, with the Board answering questions about benchmarking; its developing relationship with conservators, especially in the U.K.; and the Board’s own election procedures.
The meeting was wrapped up by yours truly, with thanks to the Board, the presenters and finally, the most important attendees—yes, the U.K. membership and their colleagues—for taking the time to travel to Edinburgh for this meeting, especially as the meeting was held so close to the end of the U.K. financial year.
On Thursday and Friday, the Board was still hard at work with all-day meetings to discuss IAMFA business, including the development of the membership strategy, the sponsorship strategy and of course the 2014 Conference.
On Saturday, members of the IAMFA Board made their weary way back home, hopefully secure in the knowledge that the 2014 Annual Conference will be a fantastic event—and that the weather cannot possibly be as bad as it was during the week. Here’s hoping!
Jack Plumb is Head of Estates at the National Library of Scotland, IAMFA UK Representative and Chair of the IAMFA Scotland 2014 Organising Committee.
List of Contributors
Thomas C. Jester